Two teams of researchers announced the complete reprogramming of an adult human cell back to its original state of pluripotency just two years ago, in the fall of 2007. An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) is a reprogrammed cell that has the ability to differentiate into any form of cell. iPS cells have the ability to divide into specialised cells such as insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells, digestive enzyme-producing intestinal lining cells, kidney cells, heart cells, nerve cells, skin cells, and muscle, ligament, cartilage, and bone cells. iPS cells could generate specific cells, tissues, and organs for use in disease treatment and/or transplantation under the right conditions. Get more info about Prp treatment near me.
Adult cell reprogramming opens up completely new areas of medical science. If it is discovered that iPS cells are identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the prospect of reprogramming would have a major effect on the ESC debate. Adult cells, rather than ESCs, are used in reprogramming, and much of regenerative medicine could be possible without the use of embryos.
Both teams used similar methods to reprogram adult human skin cells, led by Dr. Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan and Dr. James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin. Years of study resulted in the discovery of many unique genes that cause a cell to revert to a pluripotent state. Dr. Yamanaka started with a collection of 24 genes and tried to figure out which ones were the most successful. Sox2, c-Myc, Oct-4, and Klf4 were selected from a group of four genes after thorough study. The virus was used to transfect adult skin cells after these genes were injected into virus particles. The expression of various transcription factors is induced by the activation of these genes within the adult skin cell. These proteins cause the skin cell to revert to a pluripotent state by activating other genes within the cell.